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Prosthodontic dentistry

Prostodontic dentistry is a field of dentistry which specialists take care of restoration of missing teeth. Currently, the possibilities of dental prosthesis enable restoring a destroyed or broken tooth or dental row by means of specific biocompatible substances. Dental prostheses are made in cooperation with the laboratory of dental technicians.

All dental prostheses can be divided into fixed and removable ones.

Fixed dental prostheses are dental crowns and bridges. They are attached to real teeth or dental implants in a fixed way and are little different or do not differ from the own teeth, so the life quality of a person after their application does not deteriorate at all. Fixed dental prostheses are made of metal (gold, chromium and cobalt, nickel and cobalt alloys), metal ceramics or – in order to reach aesthetics of a higher level – metal-free ceramics (zirconium oxide, aluminium oxide or glass). Non-metal ceramics is especially suitable for the restoration of fore teeth as a dark strip is not visible at the gums like in the case of making prostheses of metal ceramics. Non-metal ceramics is transparent and the colour can be perfectly adapted to the adjacent teeth.

The most frequent purpose of dental crowns is to protect a damaged “dead” tooth from external breaking after endodontic treatment.

Dental bridges are made in case the teeth next to the defect are suitable as supports for the restoration of the missing tooth. One or a few artificial teeth are held “hung” with crowns on healthy adjacent teeth. The main drawback of this kind of prosthesis is abrasion of supporting teeth which can have negative consequences in the future.

Removable prostheses enable restoring much bigger defects of dental rows or toothless jawbones. Of course, it is more complicated to accustom removable prostheses, but the ability of chewing can be got back in quite a cheap way.

Depending on the substance and way of production, removable prostheses can be plastic plates or supporting arch prostheses (bugels) with a smaller (more convenient) metal base. Supporting arch prostheses can be attached to the adjacent teeth both with hooks and complicated aesthetical constructions-locks or telescopic crowns. In case of using removable prostheses, the features deformed by missing teeth are restored and the patient sort of gets younger.

After dental prosthesis, mouth hygiene cannot be forgotten in any case – both personal and professional. The crown-covered tooth can be damaged by caries, especially in the junction between the crown and the tooth. Plaque-caused inflammation weakens the bone around supporting teeth or implants. Thus, we are asking you with all our heart not to leave your teeth without care of a dental hygienist or dentist after having invested time and money for dental prosthesis.

PROSTHESIS ON DENTAL IMPLANTS

A dental implant is a substitute for a natural dental root, a titanium screw that is screwed in the jaw bone instead of the root of a lost or removed tooth. Implants are used for the restoration of one, a few or all teeth. There are a lot of ways to treat the dental crown, but only implants enable having the whole tooth – both its root and crown. Dental implants are a way to restore lost teeth without dressing or loading the adjacent teeth.

The human organism that often rejects foreign bodies accepts titanium easily and dental implantation becomes suitable for most patients.

While performing prosthetics, it is important to choose a proper support on the implant that is fixed with a screw. It can be standard – made of metal – or of zirconium oxide. In more complicated cases, an individual support is made.

A crown on the implant can be made of metal ceramics or metal-free ceramics (on the basis of zirconium oxide) like on the tooth and its colour and shape are matched to the adjacent teeth. The crown can be cemented or screwed by exactly adjusting the occlusion.

With the help of implants, not one, but more lost teeth can be restored; in this case, bridges are made on implants. A bridge cannot be made by using the own tooth on one side and the implant on the other side like supports. The tooth has normal physiological mobility and the implant is grown into the jawbone with a solid osseous connection, thus, it can gradually start moving if the tooth moves.

Implants can be used like supports in order to fix removable prostheses in a better way.

Missing teeth should be restored as the absence of a tooth can damage the following:

  • State of adjacent teeth. Teeth are a harmonious system. If a lost tooth is not replaced with a new one, the other teeth start deforming: the upper tooth loses its support and moves down and the adjacent teeth deform and can cause problems with occlusion. Besides, food gets to the spaces and the teeth deteriorate quicker.
  • Jaw bone. While chewing, the person stimulates blood circulation and helps to saturate the bone with necessary substances. In case of a missing tooth, the metabolism is disordered and the bone starts melting. The absence of one or a few teeth can make the jawbone reduce and the face is deformed. The facial contours change and the person looks older than he/she really is. It is also possible to implant a tooth in spite of missing bone, but the bone reconstruction must be performed in this case.
  • Speaking. In case of losing a few teeth, problems with speaking can occur, for example, lisping etc. Teeth on dental implants give a possibility to feel, look and communicate like with the own natural teeth.
Service by: Rūta Štarolienė.